# Outliers solution

Ok, here is my solution to the Outliers Puzzle.

This is my solution which i think is the logical answer to the problem.

Lets look at the highlighted grids below with the highlighted diamonds, clubs and heart shapes. Click on the image to get a larger view in a new window.

If we look at the grid you will see that the highlighted shapes are the only ones in that grid that do not have another touching corresponding shape within the grid. You could almost call them OUTLIERS.

Column 1 Row 1 : has only 1 non touching like shape. There is 1 diamond that does not touch another diamond, all other shapes can touch another like shape

Column 1 Row 2 : has a 2 shapes that do not touch another like shape. A diamond and a heart.

Column 1 Row 3 : has 3 shapes that do not touch another like shape the three diamonds.

Column 2 Row 1 : has 3 shapes that do not touch another like shape the three clubs.

Column 2 Row 2 : has 1 shape that does not touch another like shape, 1 club.

Column 2 Row 3 : has 2 shapes that do not touch another like shape, the club and the diamond.

Column 3 Row 1 : has 2 shapes that do not touch another like shape, the heart and the diamond.

Column 3 Row 2 : has 3 shapes that do not touch another like shape, the three diamonds.

Column 3 Row 3 : ??? We’ll get to this.

Now that we have observed the pattern we can see the following counts of non touching shapes.

Column 1 | Column 2 | Column 3 | |

Row 1 |
1 |
3 |
2 |

Row 2 |
2 |
1 |
3 |

Row 3 |
3 |
2 |
??? |

Row 1 has values from 1 to 3

Row 2 has values from 1 to 3

Row 3 would need a value of 1 non touching shape to make the numeric pattern 123 fit.

Column 1 has values 1 to 3

Column 2 has values 1 to 3

Column 3 would need a value of 1 non touching shape to make the numeric pattern 123 fit.

Ok so then lets look at the possible answers, there are 4 possible answers that have 1 non touching shape within the grid.

A, C, E, G.

But this puzzle needs one more turn to get our answer.

A – has a heart as it’s non touching shape.

C – has a club as it’s non touching shape.

E – has a diamond as it’s non touching shape.

G – has a diamond as it’s non touching shape.

Our two grids in the puzzule that only have 1 touching shape are

Row 1 column 1 which is a diamond, and

Row 2 Column 2 which is a club.

So the next logical shape has to have one shape that doesn’t touch any other shape, and that is a heart.

Which would give us an answer of (A) as the other 3 have possible answers have already used that shape.

I hope this helps out those who were struggling with the answer.

### Note. There may be a slight issue with the puzzle in column 3 row 2 which if corrected would allow for the third pattern to evolve. I believe that the diamonds and hearts should be reversed in each others positions.

This would then give the following patterns

Column 1 | Column 2 | Column 3 | |

Row 1 |
Diamond |
Club,Club,Club |
Heart, Diamond |

Row 2 |
Diamond, Heart |
Club |
Heart, Heart Heart (instead of 3 Diamonds) |

Row 3 | Diamond, Diamond, Diamond |
Club, Diamond |
Heart |

Thus giving each column a dominant shape and where each shape has 5 outliers.

## Looking for more examples of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices

Advanced progressive matrices set 1

Advanced progressive matrices set II

#### Coloured Progressive Matrices Sets A,ab,b JC Raven

#### Advanced Progressive Matrices Test: 2

#### Raven’s Progressive Matrices (TM) Test Preparation Workbook

## Enjoyed Outliers: The Story of Success

## Looking for other books by Malcolm Gladwell

### Check out these from Amazon

Hi Luke,

I’m reading this book at the moment and managed to solve this in a couple of minutes, wasn’t sure my method was right, or I just found a very simple way to solve it, or I was just very lucky!

To start with I thought I’d try and find a connection between the first and the last columns. I noticed the two symbols in the bottom right hand corner of column 1 and the two symbols in the top right of the the right column. I then looked at the second row and saw that the same two symbols were in the bottom right of column 1 and the top right of column 2, but reversed. I imagined it would work for row 3 too!

And it did!

Interesting to see your much more complex look at it!

Cheers,

Josh

Hi Josh,

Thanks for your input, your answer may be right or it could be purely coincidental, as I don’t know the definitive answer, but my only concern is that your answer ignores column 2 all together and I’ve never seen a puzzle like these where items are placed in a logic puzzle to then be ignored.

But who i am to say that they can’t.

Well done!

Cheers

Luke

There are actually two patterns that must be met to find the right solution. The first is the “outlier” pattern that Luke describes, and the second is as follows:

In every 3×3 grid, note that there is always exactly 1 column which contains all 3 symbols (i.e. a heart, a diamond, and a club). If you take a look at the position of that column in each of the grids you will notice a pattern that emerges.

Solution A is the only one that matches the both pattern cases.

Could you please explain that “pattern”. If I get it right it should be:

313

321

132

One can think some kind of logic out there, but the answers B, D, G, H give us also 2 (as they all have “exactly 1 column which contains all 3 symbols”)

Here is the real answer.

Clubs = 3, Hearts = 2, Diamonds = 1

Translate all symbols to their respective numbers

Use in clock arithmetic where:

1-1 = 3(club)

If we label each column from left to right across the top A-I.

Column G = E – 1

Column H = F – 1

If the whole square is a 3×3 stack of blocks then:

Column I top = F – A

Column I Mid = E – A

Thus:

Column I Bottom = D – A

This gives you the solution without having to have even see the answer key.

I got the correct answer, but used a different approach. None of the grids in the question have three like symbols wrapped along a corner. So rule number one is no three like symbols wrapped along a corner. This eliminates B (three clubs along the upper right hand corner), D (three hearts along the upper left hand corner), E (three clubs along the upper right hand corner), G (clubs lower right), H (clubs upper right). Looking at each row of grids, the symbol in the center of each grid is never the same in all three grids per row, so rule number two is the symbol in the center of each grid can not be the same in all three grids per row. This eliminates the remaining choices except for A and E. The final rule, as per the grids in the question, no grid can have three like symbols in a row or column. This leaves A.

I got it correct, but I reached my answer by finding these common things in the 8 known matrices:

1. There is never a row or column with three of the same shape

2. If three of the samw shape are touching each other in an L-shape, then the corner(the shape that connects the other two) of this L-shape can not be in the corner of the matrix

3. In each matrix, there is always one and only one row with three different shapes and one and only one column with three different shapes.

Applying these rules excludes all the answers but A, giving us the correct answer.

By the way sorry if my grammar isn’t perfect English is not my native language.

What I saw was for every row their were two boxes where all three hearts were connected, and the last box had a lone heart. The last row already had two boxes with connecting hearts. Therefore the answer was A the only answer choice with a lone heart.